By Bertrand Russell
Considering that its first ebook in 1945? Lord Russell's A background of Western Philosophy has been universally acclaimed because the awesome one-volume paintings at the topic — remarkable in its comprehensiveness, its readability, its erudition, its grace and wit. In seventy-six chapters he lines philosophy from the increase of Greek civilization to the emergence of logical research within the 20th century. one of the philosophers thought of are: Pythagoras, Heraclitus, Parmenides, Empedocles, Anaxagoras, the Atomists, Protagoras, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, the Cynics, the Sceptics, the Epicureans, the Stoics, Plotinus, Ambrose, Jerome, Augustine, Benedict, Gregory the nice, John the Scot, Aquinas, Duns Scotus, William of Occam, Machiavelli, Erasmus, extra, Bacon, Hobbes, Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz, Locke, Berkeley, Hume, Rousseau, Kant, Hegel, Schopenhauer, Nietzsche, the Utilitarians, Marx, Bergson, James, Dewey, and finally the philosophers with whom Lord Russell himself is so much heavily linked — Cantor, Frege, and Whitehead, co-author with Russell of the huge Principia Mathematica.
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This theory has the merit of making all the differences between different substances quantitative, depending entirely upon the degree of condensation. " It seems that the world breathes. Anaximenes was more admired in antiquity than Anaximander, though almost any modern world would make the opposite valuation. He had an important influence on Pythagoras and on much subsequent speculation. The Pythagoreans discovered that the earth is spherical, but the atomists adhered to the view of Anaximenes, that it is shaped like a disc.
Aristotle reports him as saying that these known elements are in opposition to one another. Air is cold, water is moist, and fire is hot. " The primal substance, therefore, must be neutral in this cosmic strife. There was an eternal motion, in the course of which was brought about the origin of the worlds. The worlds were not created, as in Jewish or Christian theology, but evolved. There was evolution also in the animal kingdom. Living creatures arose from the moist element as it was evaporated by the sun.
Both cities lived by importing Ionian wares into Italy, partly for consumption in that country, partly for re-export from the western coast to Gaul and Spain. The various Greek cities of Italy fought each other fiercely; when Pythagoras arrived in Croton, it had just been defeated by Locri. ). Sybaris had been closely linked in commerce with Miletus. Croton was famous for medicine; a certain Democedes of Croton became physician to Polycrates and then to Darius. At Croton Pythagoras founded a society of disciples, which for a time was influential in that city.
A History of Western Philosophy [poor font] by Bertrand Russell