By Joseph F. Albright
George Washington Univ. institution of medication, Washington, D.C. Examines the key positive factors and capabilities of the immune approach probably to be altered through the getting older strategy. reports the slow breakdown of the resistance to an infection within the elderly and discusses lifespan extension and dietary hold up of immunosenescence. DNLM: Immunity--Aged.
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Additional info for Aging, Immunity, and Infection
In the case of the respiratory system, it is well established that pulmonary function deteriorates with age (2). Some of the anatomical changes that contribute to loss of function include: (a) decreased mean broncheolar diameter; (b) increased diameter of the alveolar sacs, which become shallower; (c) decrease in elastic fibers and increase in type III collagen. Those anatomical changes contribute to the following functional changes: (a) decrease in elastic recoil; (b) decrease in oxygen diffusion capacity; (c) small airway closure resulting in air trapping; (d) decreased expiratory flow rates.
Shigella employ an alternate method of crossing the barrier. They can induce chemotaxis of phagocytic cells, especially polymorphonuclear leukocytes. As the latter migrate toward the bacteria they open spaces in the tight junctions through which the bacteria pass across the epithelial surface (58). It is interesting to note that S. typhimurium is representative of several bacteria that can cross the intestinal barrier either via M cells or by traversing enterocytes (56). The entrance and fate of bacteria that enter into host macrophages and dendritic cells are discussed in some detail in Chapter 3.
The natural portal of entry is oral, leading to invasion of mucosal surfaces of the small intestine. However, L. monocytogenes, which is a facultative intracellular organism, can invade and replicate inside a variety of mammalian cells including those that are, and are not, typical phagocytes. Once ingested, the bacteria are incorporated into phagosomes from which they escape by lysing the phagosomal membrane. The bacteria replicate in the cytoplasm and spread from cell to cell often without becoming extracellular.
Aging, Immunity, and Infection by Joseph F. Albright